1. 安装MySQL数据库

先从MySQL官网下载MySQL,然后进入所下载的安装文件所在目录,运行如下命令进行安装,其中MySQL-server-community-5.1.56-1.rhel5.i386.rpm为刚刚下载的MySQL数据库服务器的rpm包,然后使用/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqlrestart命令重启MySQL服务:

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -ivh MySQL-server-community-5.1.56-1.rhel5.i386.rpm
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL..[确定]
Starting MySQL..[确定]

2. 配置MySQL数据库字符集

备注:配置MySQL数据库字符集的目的是方便的使用数据库,无需在每次连接的时候都要临时设置数据库字符集的,个人不建议采用这种方法,真正的工程项目都应该在连接数据库时临时设置数据库字符集,如此才便于系统的移植,而且又不会影响数据库服务器中的其他数据库的使用!安装完成之后,需要配置MySQL的字符集配置,首先需要查找MySQL的配置文件的位置,由于MySQL的配置文件名是以.cnf结尾的,因此可用如下命令进行查找:

[root@localhost ~]# find / -iname '*.cnf' -print
/usr/share/mysql/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-huge.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-small.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.56/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.56/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.56/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.56/my-huge.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.56/my-small.cnf
/etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf

输入完命令find / -iname '*.cnf'-print回车后,屏幕便显示搜索到的MySQL配置文件,然后拷贝my-large.cnf、my-medium.cnf 、my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf 、my-huge.cnf、my-small.cnf中任意的一个到/etc目录下,并命名为my.cnf,其命令如下所示:

[root@localhost ~]# cp /usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf

然后,使用vi编辑器修改/etc/my.cnf文件,在[client]下添加: default-character-set=gb2312;在[mysqld]下添加:default-character-set=gb2312。如下所示:

[root@localhost ~]# cp /usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf
# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients
[client]
default-character-set=gb2312
#password       = your_password
port            = 3306
socket          = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

# Here follows entries for some specific programs

# The MySQL server
[mysqld]
default-character-set=gb2312
port            = 3306
socket          = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
skip-locking
key_buffer_size = 16M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 64
sort_buffer_size = 512K
net_buffer_length = 8K

按一下Esc键,输入:wq后回车保存配置文件,输入/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqlrestart重启MySQL服务,如下所示:

[root@localhost ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL..[确定]
Starting MySQL..[确定]

最后,我们来验证MySQL服务器配置是否成功,首先登录MySQL,输入mysql –uroot -p回车,系统提示输入密码,登录成功后进入MySQL命令模式,如下所示:

[root@localhost ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.1.56-community-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql>

在MySQL命令模式下分别输入show variables like'collation_%';show variables like 'character_set_%';回车后显示字符集设置,如下所示:

mysql> show variables like 'collation_%';
+----------------------+-------------------+
| Variable_name        | Value             |
+----------------------+-------------------+
| collation_connection | gb2312_chinese_ci |
| collation_database   | gb2312_chinese_ci |
| collation_server     | gb2312_chinese_ci |
+----------------------+-------------------+
3 rows in set (0.05 sec)
mysql> show variables like 'character_set_%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name            | Value                      |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| character_set_client     | gb2312                     |
| character_set_connection | gb2312                     |
| character_set_database   | gb2312                     |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |
| character_set_results    | gb2312                     |
| character_set_server     | gb2312                     |
| character_set_system     | utf8                       |
| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql>

根据以上查询结果可知我们设置的MySQL数据库配置信息已经生效,至此完成MySQL的服务器的安装与配置。

3. 关于MySQL数据库的一些注意事项

(3.1) 远程连接mysql速度慢

解决方法:在MySQL服务器的配置(/etc/my.cnf)中增加一个如下配置后速度飞快。

[mysqld]
skip-name-resolve

备注:这样就能禁用DNS解析,连接速度会快很多。不过,这样的话就不能在MySQL的授权表中使用主机名了而只能用ip格式。

(3.2) 重启数据库后,发现无需密码(或者任何密码)即可以连接
解决方法:检查你的MySQL配置文件(/etc/my.cnf)中是不是多了一条语句:skip-grant-tables,删除(注释)该语句,重新配置MySQL密码,再次重启MySQL服务即可!

备注:若使用skip-grant-tables系统将对任何用户的访问不做任何访问控制,但可以用 mysqladmin flush-privilegesmysqladmin reload来开启访问控制;默认情况是show databases语句对所有用户开放,如果mysql服务器没有开远程帐户,就在/etc/my.cnf里面加上skip-grant-tables。

  • 声明:本文部分内容摘自网络,加上本人操作整理而成,希望能对您有所帮助!